حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الدِّمَشْقِيُّ، وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السَّمَرْقَنْدِيُّ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مَرْوَانُ، قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو يَزِيدَ الْخَوْلاَنِيُّ، – وَكَانَ شَيْخَ صِدْقٍ وَكَانَ ابْنُ وَهْبٍ يَرْوِي عَنْهُ – حَدَّثَنَا سَيَّارُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، – قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ الصَّدَفِيُّ – عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ وَطُعْمَةً لِلْمَسَاكِينِ مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ .
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prescribed the sadaqah (alms) relating to the breaking of the fast as a purification of the fasting from empty and obscene talk and as food for the poor. If anyone pays it before the prayer (of ‘Id), it will be accepted as zakat. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like other sadaqahs (alms).
Sunan Abi Dawud 1609
From the above hadith below benefits are inferred
It is not allowed to delay Zakaatul Fitr till after ‘Îd Ṣalaah and once Salah has been observed Zakaatul Fitr done afterwards is not acceptable. This opinion is most correct on this matter
The only people that are qualified to be give Zakaatul Fitr are the poor among the 8 categories of people that are entitled to Zakah generally. And this is the most correct opinion on this matter. Zakaatul Fitr is strictly for the poor and no more.
Hikmah and benefits of giving it out are spelt out in the hadith : to purify one fast from shortcomings and to serve as food for the poor.
Going by above benefits which targeted both the Giver and taker of Zakaatul Fitr. It is crystal clear that the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم as regard giving Zakaatul Fitr is food not money as some scholars erroneously opined.
It indicates the Rahmah of Allâh on Muslims to have given us this favour of using Zakaatul Fitr to rectify our shortcomings while fasting in order to have full reward intact. Alhamdulillahi for Islaam.
One Ṣaa’un which is equivalent to 4 Mududu is to paid per head. Coming back to our local measurement this is equivalent to 14 cups of milk tin or 4 derica (for Lagos people) approximately. And it should be paid by head of the house on those under him (wives, children, slaves and what a view) according to most correct opinion as some scholars said otherwise that individual should pay by his/herself if s/he has the the means or else the responsibility returned back to the head.
وصلى الله وسلم على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
Gathered by servant of Allâh who is in dare need of His forgiveness and Rahmah
Today’s Tafseer starts from Aayah :
- Qur’an is means of success by reading, listening and staying with it. One can’t be unfortunate by staying with teachings of Qur’an. The verse started with لقد which is double emphasis and it implies attention to series of benefits embedded in this story and calling to ponder over this story and reflect on it
- A lot of lessons are embedded in story of Yuusuf both religious and worldly benefits. And these can be achieved by the one who is calmed and eager to learn.
- Something that comes After the word كما is greater than what is before it
- Favours bestowed on Prophet Ibrahim and Is-haaq were considered greater, this was due to the fact that these favors were preceded by trials and tribulations
- The peak of trial that afflicted Prophet Ibrahim was mentioned in Qur’an Suratul Anbiyaai : 68-70
- In knowledge of Balaagah the one being compared with is greater than comparer
- The story of Yuusuf focused on Yuusuf and his siblings. Any other issue that occurred during the course of the story was not as important like Yuusuf and his siblings. No wonder the story started by mentioning Yuusuf and his siblings and ended with them
- Both إخوة and إخوان have basic usage. إخوة basically to show blood relative as used in this Aayah, also in verse 58, verse 5.
- As for إخوان is basically for friendship as used in Suratul Aalil ‘Imraan: 103, Suratul Hijr: 47,Suratul Israai: 27
- However both can be used interchangeably for reasons : as used in Suratul Hujuraat : 10. It means that you should relate like blood relative
- In Suratul Nuur: 61 إخوان was used in place of إخوة for the purpose that the blood related should eat like friends without being shy
- Aayaat as plural was used in the verse to indicate that this story would be full of benefits. Therefore, one should be calm to derive many benefits from the story.
- The word السائلين as used in the verse can be interpreted in two
- To mean those Jews that came to ask about the story from the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم in order to disgrace him
- Or refer to those reading or listening to the story to be calm in order to derive many lessons form the story be they scholars or listeners.
- Twelve (12) lessons and signs are embedded in this story which are derived from 5 verses :
- Lessons for those asking how parents should relate with their children
- Lessons on how parents should advise and warn their children to be careful of evils of close relatives without breaking tie of kinship
- Lessons on how children should relate with their parents
- Lessons on how siblings should relate with one another
- Unbeatable power of Allâh that can never be overpowered
- Allâh can choose person at any point in life be it young or old age and this serves as hope to all.
- Dreams and principles on how to interpret dreams
- Benefits of patience as exemplified by many personalities in the story and their good ending
- To be successful in life, one needs to struggle
- Conceiving favours Allâh bestowed on one by guiding them from the eyes of enviers. As it is well known that the more favours, the more one will be envied
- Competition is inevitable in life and it forms the foundation why people show hatred to one another as evident in the story
- How to gain freedom from the prison and still be relevant to the society
- Similitude of this methodology in Qur’an where سائلين or its derivatives are used in narrating stories : Suuratu Fuṣilat: 10, Suratun Nabai:1, Suratul Ma’aarij: 1
- وصلى الله وسلم على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
- Forgetfully/mistakenly eating or drinking during the day of fasting.
- Deliberately eating while thinking sincerely that the Fajr is not out – even if it turns out that it was.
- Deliberately eating while thinking sincerely that the sun has set – even if turns out that it has not.
There is authentic evidence for each of the above in the Sunnah, omitted only to simplify it for the commoners. In the third case however, the person must stop the eating immediately till the sun sets and his fasting is correct.
Written by: Sheikh Murtado Alade Adedokun, Hafidhahullah.