Explanation of the Hadeeth: إن في أصحابي اثنا عشر منافقا…

Secondly, the wording
“أصحابي” “my Companions” has broad meaning here

let’s take a look at the literal and technical meanings of this word so as to have in-depth knowledge of the word, it is said that
الحكم على الشيئ فرع عن تصوره”
“Adjudication of a thing is an offshoot of its perception”

As Suhbah literally means: “accompany”,  “keep company with” or “associate with”.

It is said that “ashabtuhu or sahibtuhu suhbatan fa anaa sahib” [I have accompanied him, so I am a companion.”              

The plural forms of the word ‘suhbah’ are sahb, ashāb and Ṣahābah.(Al-Qāmus al-Muhit, 1/237, term “sahb)

But Technically, it has a more narrowed meaning though there are different definitions by the Scholars but the choosen definition which is the best according to In Hajar Al ‘Asqalāniy in his: Al Iṣābah is:

” A Ṣahābiy is a person who believed in the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), who came together with the Prophet and died as a Muslim”

With this definition of Ibn Hajar it is Cristal clear that:

A kāfir or he who came together with the Prophet but did not believe in him is not a Ṣahābiy people like: Abu Jahl, Umayyah Bn Khalaf, Abu Lahb etc

Also, a Munāfiq like Abdullah Bn Ubayy Bn Salūl who was the head of the Munāfiqūn and his accomplices were never  companions as they did not truely believe in him but in disguise! Can’t you see how the Prophet replied Umar when he asked that he should cut off the head of that Kabeeth(ie: Abdullah Bn Ubayy bn Salūl) he(the Prophet) said:
” No, so that people will not say that Muhammad is killing his companions” (Bukhary and Muslim).

Is Abdullah Bn Ubayy bn Salūl a companion?
Only an ignorant will answer in affirmative!!

Moreso, the second narration has explained the meaning of أصحابي in the first narration as أمتي ” in my Ummah”  which means that the  sahābah who overtly and covertly believed in the Prophet were not intended here but the hypocrites who cunningly believe in him.

In addendum, it should be known that those hypocrites who disguised to be Muslims in the city of Madeenah who were not known initially by the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam were later exposed by Allāh to his Prophet who, in turn told Hudhayfah Bn Yamān(Ṣāhib sirri Rasūl).

Allāh says about them:

“وَمِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مُنَـٰفِقُونَۖ وَمِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡمَدِینَةِ مَرَدُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلنِّفَاقِ لَا تَعۡلَمُهُمۡۖ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُهُمۡۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَیۡنِ ثُمَّ یُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِیمࣲ)”

Translation of the meaning:

“And among the bedouins round about you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah, they exaggerate and persist in hypocrisy, you (O Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) know them not, We know them. We shall punish them twice, and thereafter they shall be brought back to a great (horrible) torment”. (At-Tawbah:101)

There were never Munāfiqun in the midst of the Muhājirūn as they believed in the Prophet overtly and covertly even if they were punished but as for the Anṣār in Madeenah, some people cunningly accepted Islām because there were no alternative safe that as Islām has dominated the nooks and crannies of Madeenah.This assertion has been explained by many scholars like Ibn Taymiyyah in “Minhāj Sunnah An Nabawiyyah(8/474) and “Suālun fee Mu’āwiyah bn Abee Sufyān pg 20.

Ibn Katheer also premised his conclusion on this in his book “Al Fusūl fee Seeratir Rasūl pg 54. Also Tawrabatshee in his Al Muyassar (4/1296).
Al Mizzy according to Al Mardāwiy in “At Tahbeer Sharh Tahreer (4/1995)”
Ibn Katheer in his compendium “Tafseer Qur’an Al ‘Adheem 4/204)  and many others.

So, it is abominable for a well meaning Muslim to adjuge any companion a hypocrite!

The Āyāt qouted by these ignoramuses like the Āyat:
“وَیَقُولُونَ طَاعَةࣱ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا۟ مِنۡ عِندِكَ بَیَّتَ طَاۤىِٕفَةࣱ مِّنۡهُمۡ غَیۡرَ ٱلَّذِی تَقُولُۖ وَٱللَّهُ یَكۡتُبُ مَا یُبَیِّتُونَۖ فَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡ وَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى ٱللَّهِۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِیلًا”

Sūrat An-Nisa’: 81


(وَلَوۡ نَشَاۤءُ لَأَرَیۡنَـٰكَهُمۡ فَلَعَرَفۡتَهُم بِسِیمَـٰهُمۡۚ وَلَتَعۡرِفَنَّهُمۡ فِی لَحۡنِ ٱلۡقَوۡلِۚ وَٱللَّهُ یَعۡلَمُ أَعۡمَـٰلَكُمۡ)

Sūrat Muhammad:30

These āyāt and others were only on the Munāfiqūn in Madeenah who the Prophet later told Hudhayfah their names who gathered in the Al’ Aqabah (a milestone from Tabūk) This is not the ‘Aqabah where the Anṣār took the pledge of allegiance as some may insinuate (See: Sharh Saheeh Muslim (17/126), Kashful Mushkil: 1/392).

Some Scholars have painstakingly gathered their names in their books. This is not our business here.

Thirdly, the wordings:

*They would not get into Paradise, until a camel would be able to pass through the needle hole*

is another point to note that the Ṣahābah were never intended because they are already forgiven and Allāh is pleased with them. No one forgiven by Allāh will be deprived of Al Jannah, Allāh says:

“وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِینَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِینَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَـٰنࣲ رَّضِیَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُوا۟ عَنۡهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتࣲ تَجۡرِی تَحۡتَهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِینَ فِیهَاۤ أَبَدࣰاۚ ذَ ٰ⁠لِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِیمُ”

(Translation of the meaning):

“And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansar (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhajirun) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success”.

SuratAt-Tawbah: 100

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