Īd Prayer in the Houses and Villages; And What the One Who Misses the ‘Īd Prayer Does and the One Locked Down and What the Weak One Does When They Can’t Go to the Prayer Ground
Al-Imam Al-Bukhari- may Allāh have mercy on him- said his Sahīh:
” If he misses the ‘īd, he should observe two rak’ats; likewise the ladies and those in the houses and villages, based on the statement of the Prophet, sallā Allāhu alayhi wa sallam, ” This is our ‘īd, we the people of Islām” Anas bn Mālik also ordered their mawlā, Ibn Abi ‘Utbah, at az-Zāwiyah; so he garthered his wife and children and he observed a salāt and a takbeer similar to that of the people of the town.
‘Ikrimah said, ‘ The People will garther in the ‘īd and observe two rak’ats the way the Imam does,
Ataa, said, when he misses the ‘īd, he observes two rak’at “
Al-Bayhaqi also reported in ( As-Sunan al-Kubrā) from ‘Ubaydullah bn Abi Bakr bn Anas bn Mālik, the servant of the Messenger of Allāh, sallā alayhi wasallam, he said, ” Whenever Anas missed the ‘Īd prayer with the Imam, he would garther his family and lead them in prayer LIKE THAT of the Imam in the ‘Īd ground.”
Ibn Abi Shaibah also reported in ( Al-Musannaf) from Ibn Mas’ud that he said, ” Whoever misses the ‘īd prayer,should observe for rak’ats”. This was reported with authentic chains as said by Ibn Rajab contrary to Ibn al-Mundhir who declared it weak.
Ishāq al-Kawsaj also said, ” I said to Ahmad: ” If he leads the weak ones in salāt in the mosque, how should he lead them?
He said, ” Two rak’ats; I hope there is no harm if he delivers khutbah.”
I said, ” Will delivers khutbah to them? “
He said, ” Yes; however, if he doesn’t deliver khutbah, he should pray four rak’ats”
[ Masāil al-Imam Ahmad Wa Is-hāq bn Rahuweyhi, volume 8/4053]
Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allāh have mercy on him, said,
” Likewise on the day of ‘īd if he can’t go out with the imam, then that is lifted from him and it is permissible for him to do whatever he can so that he can have what he is able to do of ‘ibādat that day. So he observes for rak’ats and two rak’ats will be in place of the khutbah that he didn’t pray with just like the khutbah is in place of rak’ats on the day of Jum’ah.
As for the takbeer, it is only recommended in two rak’at salāt which has khutbah. Likewise reciting aloud, the imam recites aloud in the jum’ah prayer. However, the one observing four rak’ats will not recite aloud;likewise the one observing four rak’ats on the day of ‘īd will not recite aloud.
Hence, the one detained, the sick and the one that goes out to pray and misses the salāt with the imam, they [ all] pray on the day of ‘īd unlike the one who deliberately abandons it. This is a great basis upon which is the Sunnah in differienting between jum’ah and ‘īd .
Reports from Ahmad have varied concerning the one who misses the ‘īd. Will he pray four rak’ats or two or he should be given the option between the two: there are three reports.”
[ Majm’oo al-Fataawa, 24/185-176]
From the foregoing, it may be said that it is encouraged that the one who leads the salāt gives khutbah since it is established that Anas would observe it the way the imam at their prayer ground does; and part of what the Imam does is that he delivers khutbah after the salāt.
However, if he does not deliver khutbah, he can pray four rak’ats based on the report from Abdullah bn Mas’ud. This is how Al-Imam Ahmad reconciled the āthār.
You can download the lecture, ‘Eid Prayer During Lockdown
Written by: Sheikh ‘AbdulGaniy Juma’h, Hafidhahullah.